Biwako Plus Five

UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL GENERAL
E/ESCAP/APDDP(2)/2* 13 November 2007

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC High-level Intergovernmental Meeting on the Midpoint Review of the Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons, 2003-2012

19-21 September 2007
Bangkok

BIWAKO PLUS FIVE: FURTHER EFFORTS TOWARDS AN INCLUSIVE, BARRIER-FREE AND RIGHTS-BASED SOCIETY FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

As adopted by the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting on the Midpoint Review of the Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons, 2003-2012, on 21 September 2007

CONTENTS

PREAMBLE (page1)

NATURE AND OVERARCHING PRINCIPLES OF BIWAKO PLUS FIVE (page 4)

PRIORITY AREAS FOR ACTION UNDER THE BIWAKO MILLENNIUM FRAMEWORK FOR (page 5)

Self-help organizations of persons with disabilities and related family and parent associations (page 5)

Women with disabilities (page 6)

Early detection, early intervention and education (page 6)

Training and employment, including self-employment (page 7)

Access to built environments and public transport (page 8)

Access to information and communications, including information,communications and assistive technologies (page 8)

Poverty alleviation through capacity-building, social security and sustainable livelihood programmes (page 9)

IV. KEY STRATEGIES (page 9)

Reinforcing a rights-based approach to disability issues (page 11)

Promoting an enabling environment and strengthening effective mechanisms for policy formulation and implementation (page 12)

Improving the availability and quality of data and other information on disabilities for policy formulation and implementation (page 13)

Promoting disability-inclusive development (page 14)

Strengthening comprehensive community-based approaches to disability issues for the prevention of the causes of disability and for the rehabilitation and empowerment of persons with disabilities (page 14)

ENHANCING COOPERATION AND SUPPORT IN PURSUANCE OF THE BIWAKO MILLENNIUM FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION (page 15)

VI. ENHANCING EFFECTIVE MONITORING AND REVIEW (page 15)

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I. PREAMBLE

1. The Asian and Pacific region is the home to two thirds of the 650 million persons with disabilities in the world. In order to ensure greater recognition of their rights, Governments and other stakeholders in the Asian and Pacific region have taken a number of measures. By its resolution 58/4 of 22 May 2002 on promoting an inclusive, barrier-free and rights-based society for people with disabilities in the Asian and Pacific region in the twenty-first century, the Commission extended the Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons, 1993-2002,1 for another decade, that is, from 2003 to 2012. Since then, a number of initiatives have been launched in line with the extended Decade. Among them was the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action towards an Inclusive, Barrier-free and Rightsbased Society in Asia and the Pacific,2 which was adopted by the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting to Conclude the Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons, 1993-2002, held in Otsu, Shiga, Japan, in October 2002, as the defining policy guideline for the new Decade. The extension of the Decade carried forward the goal of the previous Decade, 1993-2002, and the commitment made by Governments signing the Proclamation on the Full Participation and Equality of People with Disabilities in the Asian and Pacific Region:3 the full participation and equality of persons with disabilities.

2. The Biwako Millennium Framework for Action builds on both the achievements and the lessons. learned from the implementation of the policy guideline adopted for the previous Decade: the Agenda for Action for the Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons, 1993-2002 (E/ESCAP/APDDP/2). It emphasizes the paradigm shift from a charity-based approach to a rights-based approach for the development of persons with disabilities. It also promotes a barrier-free, inclusive and rights-based society, which embraces the diversity of human beings. Further, it enables and advances the socioeconomic contribution of its members and ensures the realization of those rights by persons with disabilities. The Biwako Millennium Framework for Action identifies 7 priority areas and 4 major strategic areas, with 21 targets and 17 strategies. Through Commission resolution 59/3 of 4 September 2003, Governments of countries in Asia and the Pacific, in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as United Nations agencies, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and civil society organizations, reaffirmed their commitment to the implementation of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action. In its resolution 61/8 of 18 May 2005 on the mid-point review of the implementation of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action towards an Inclusive, Barrier-free and Rights-based Society for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific, the Commission requested the Executive Secretary to hold a high-level intergovernmental meeting on the midpoint review of the Decade in 2007.

See Commission resolution 48/3 of 23 April 1992.

See Commission resolution 59/3 of 4 September 2003 (for the text of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action, see E/ESCAP/APDDP/4/Rev.1).

Adopted at the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting to Launch the Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons, held in Beijing, 1-5 December 1992. See also Commission resolution 49/6 of 29 April 1993 on the Proclamation and Agenda for Action for the Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons, 1993-2002.

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3. One of the most significant developments during the first five years of the extended Decade was the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Optional Protocol4 to the Convention. This marked the beginning of a new era in the global efforts to promote and safeguard the civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights of persons with disabilities, and to promote disability-inclusive development and international cooperation. In adopting the Convention, the General Assembly called upon States to consider signing and ratifying the Convention and the Optional Protocol as a matter of priority. The Convention represents the latest thinking of the States Members of the United Nations about this issue. It recognizes that the promotion of the full enjoyment by persons with disabilities of their human rights and fundamental freedoms and of full participation by persons with disabilities will result in their enhanced sense of belonging and in significant advances in the human, social and economic development of society and the eradication of poverty. Building on regional experiences in the formulation and implementation of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action, members and associate members of the Commission contributed to the global drafting process through a series of efforts that included the submission, in 2003, of proposals and a regional draft entitled the “Bangkok Draft” to the Ad Hoc Committee on a Comprehensive and Integral International Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities. Both the Convention and the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action pursue the common goal of achieving a barrier-free, inclusive and rights-based society. The effective implementation of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action will contribute significantly to the implementation of the Convention, and the steps taken by the States that ratify the Convention will contribute to the implementation of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action by those States.

4. The first five years of the extended Decade witnessed other significant developments as well. For example, in 2004, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) published a joint position paper5 in which they expounded the rights-based approach to community-based rehabilitation and services. The World Summit on the Information Society adopted the Tunis Commitment and the Tunis Agenda for the Information Society6 on 18 November 2005, which addressed the importance of universal design and assistive technologies that promote access for all persons, including those with disabilities. WHO addressed the need to research and implement the most effective measures to prevent disabilities in collaboration with communities and other sectors.7 The World Conference on Disaster Reduction, in adopting the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015,

General Assembly resolution 61/106 of 13 December 2006, annexes I and II.

International Labour Office, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and World Health Organization, CBR: A Strategy for Rehabilitation, Equalization of Opportunities, Poverty Reduction and Social Inclusion of People with Disabilities (Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004).

See A/60/687.

World Health Assembly resolution WHA58.23 of 25 May 2005 on disability, including prevention, management and rehabilitation.
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Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters,8 recommended, inter alia, the strengthening of the implementation of social safety-net mechanisms to assist the poor, the elderly and the disabled.

5. Research for the midpoint review shows that the implementation of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action has resulted in many positive developments. Increasing numbers of Governments in the region have shown their commitment to disability issues by signing the Proclamation on the Full Participation and Equality of People with Disabilities.9 Thus far, 46 Governments have become signatories. Many Governments have also taken steps to incorporate the concept of the rights of persons with disabilities into their constitutions, legislation, national plans of action, and policies and programmes. Persons with disabilities in Asia and the Pacific have proven their capability in this regard. They have addressed their needs and engaged in policy discourse during the drafting of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. They have also become increasingly active in the decision-making process at the regional and national levels. An increasing number of international aid and development cooperation agencies have started to explore and adopt “disability-inclusive development”, which focuses on mainstreaming the rights of persons with disabilities into general development policymaking and operations.

6. Despite such progress, challenges and obstacles still remain. The lack of availability and the quality of demographic data and socio-economic indicators concerning disability continue to be major problems. Many Governments and other stakeholders report that the lack of financial and human resources, technical knowledge and capacities hinder their implementation of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action. Although the Asian and Pacific region enjoys steady improvement in the development of disability policy, the implementation of such policies has to be ensured and their impact measured. While more persons with disabilities are becoming increasingly empowered, due attention should be paid to marginalized groups, such as those with psychosocial disabilities, intellectual disabilities or multiple disabilities and those living in rural and remote areas. ESCAP is also tasked with promoting the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action in subregions such as North and Central Asia and mainstreaming the disability perspective in subregional intergovernmental mechanisms. During the last five years, the efforts being made towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals have been reviewed vigorously. The Goals relating to the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger and achieving universal primary education have been translated into targets for two of the seven priority areas of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action. Later, the rights of persons with disabilities were specifically recognized in the 2005 World Summit Outcome,10 as the attention they received in the Millennium Development Goals had not been adequate from a disability perspective. Natural disasters and other situations entailing heightened risk, including armed conflict, exacerbate the physical,

A/CONF.206/6 and Corr.1, chap.I, resolution 2.
E/ESCAP/902, annex I.
General Assembly resolution 60/1 of 16 September 2005.
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institutional, attitudinal and informational barriers facing all people, but in particular, persons with disabilities. Such situations underline the need for better disability-inclusive disaster management with regard to both natural and man-made disasters.

7. In taking forward the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action, ministerial-level representatives of countries in the region discussed and finalized the present document at the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting on the Midpoint Review of the Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons, 2003-2012, held in Bangkok from 19 to 21 September 2007. The Biwako Plus Five outcome draws upon the findings of the five-year review, taking into consideration global developments, the emerging needs of the region with regard to disability and the challenges and obstacles which need to be overcome. It supplements the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action in the hope of making a significant contribution to the enhanced implementation of the Framework over the remaining five years of the Decade (2008-2012) by promoting the creation of an inclusive, barrier-free and rights-based society for all.

II. NATURE AND OVERARCHING PRINCIPLES OF BIWAKO PLUS FIVE

8. Biwako Plus Five supplements the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action. In terms of content, Biwako Plus Five distinguishes itself from the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action by (a) providing additional actions in the 7 priority areas, (b) reconfiguring the 4 strategy areas into 5 areas with 25 additional strategies, and (c) adding 3 strategies under “cooperation and support and monitoring and review”.

9. Biwako Plus Five should be implemented on the basis of the same principles and policy directions delineated in the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action. However, the following three aspects should be amplified:

a. First, Governments shall, within the limit of their economic capacity and development, take appropriate measures to devise national strategies and action plans for the implementation of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action and Biwako Plus Five. Governments should recognize the importance of international cooperation and partnership, in support of national efforts, including through the transfer of resources and technologies, as appropriate;

b. Second, partnership among different stakeholders, namely, Governments, representatives of disabled people’s organizations, international, regional and national nongovernmental organizations, development organizations and agencies, and the private sector, as appropriate, should be promoted in all relevant activities, including research, data collection, needs assessment, policy development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, capacity-building and awareness-raising;

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c. Third, the diversity of persons with disabilities should be respected not only because they are the targets of policies, programmes and projects but also because they are partners in the decision-making process concerning disability as well as implementers and evaluators of projects and policies.

III. PRIORITY AREAS FOR ACTION UNDER THE BIWAKO MILLENNIUM FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION

10. The Biwako Millennium Framework for Action contained 21 targets categorized under 7 priority areas. Although the dates for achieving targets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 16, 17 and 18 were set before 2007, the Governments and other stakeholders that have not yet attained those targets may need to strengthen their efforts in order to achieve them as soon as possible.

11. Further efforts need to be made in order to achieve those targets where progress has been found to be inadequate and where action has been lagging. The following are additional actions that may help countries to achieve the targets under each of the priority areas.

A. Self-help organizations of persons with disabilities and related family and parent associations

Actions required

12. Governments at all levels are encouraged to support:

The development of organizations for persons with disabilities and related family and parent associations at the local and national levels, and the promotion of their networking at the regional, subregional and interregional levels, paying particular attention to the self-help organizations of persons with intellectual disabilities, psychosocial disabilities and multiple disabilities;

The participation of persons with disabilities in the political and civil processes as well as in the development, implementation and monitoring of economic and social policies and programmes at all levels;

The development of young men and women with disabilities as leaders;

The development of partnerships with self-help organizations, in particular cooperation between urban-based self-help groups/organizations of persons with disabilities and their rural counterparts.

13. Self-help organizations and related family and parent organizations, with the support of Governments at all levels, should mainstream themselves into the self-help organizations of other vulnerable groups and communities.

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B. Women with disabilities

Actions required

14. Governments should promote:

The inclusion of gender perspectives in disability-relevant policies, programmes, plans and legislation;

The inclusion of the perspectives of women with disabilities in the development of gender-relevant policies, programmes, plans and legislation;;

The participation of women with disabilities and organizations of women with disabilities in the processes of developing both gender-relevant and disability-related policies, programmes, plans and legislation.;

15. Governments recognize that women and girls with disabilities are subject to multiple discrimination and, in this regard, together with self-help organizations, should support the economic, social, cultural and political empowerment of women with disabilities, in particular through leadership and management training on a sustained basis. Governments should take appropriate measures to address discrimination against women with disabilities in all matters, including those relating to marriage, family, parenthood and relationships, to ensure their full development, advancement and empowerment.

16. Self-help organizations should review their existing structure, policies, plans and operations, taking into account the needs of women with disabilities, and actively support their empowerment, with a view to helping them to participate fully in decision-making processes.

17. Self-help organizations and networks of women with disabilities, in collaboration with community-based development organizations and Governments at all levels, should sensitize communities in remote areas to the potential negative impacts of culture on women and girls with disabilities and address their issues through community-based development processes.

C. Early detection, early intervention and education

Actions required

18. Governments should:

a. Explore the possibility of establishing efficient coordination and communication mechanisms among government bodies responsible for health and education matters in the provision of services to infants and young children with disabilities in terms of early identification, assessment, referral to, or enrolment in, early intervention and health-care services, preschools and schools;

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b. Pay increased attention to ensuring that the number of trained personnel in early intervention services is sufficient to provide services for all children with disabilities and their families in urban, rural and remote areas;

c. Promote the access of persons with disabilities to an inclusive education system, including the acquisition of literacy skills, and to adult education and life-long learning;

d. Promote the education of all children, including those with visual and hearing impairments, deafblind and those who have learning and intellectual disabilities, so that it is delivered in the most appropriate languages and modes and means of communication;

e. Take appropriate measures to train professionals and staff who work at all levels of education and to employ teachers, including teachers with disabilities, who are adept in sign language, Braille, augmentative or alternative communication;

f. Take appropriate measures, in collaboration with other stakeholders, to involve persons with disabilities in sports, both as spectators and as active participants.

D. Training and employment, including self-employment

Actions required

19. Governments should:

Recognize the right of persons with disabilities to work, on an equal basis with others, and promote the realization of the right to work for persons with disabilities, including those who become disabled during the course of employment;

Develop comprehensive strategies to address the barriers to employment of persons with disabilities, especially those in remote, rural, agricultural and economically depressed areas, while paying particular attention to new developments in community-based approaches, in order to ensure improved access to resources and services, such as cooperatives, social enterprises, self-employment initiatives, microfinance schemes and on-the-job and peer training;

Develop national and multinational partnerships, with support from non-governmental organizations, self-help organizations and other stakeholders, aimed at increasing employment opportunities for persons with disabilities by providing incentives to facilitate hiring, retention and advancement, promoting positive awareness of their skills and employment, and operating joint training and employment programmes;

Include persons with disabilities in mainstream public employment services and provide with support services persons with disabilities and their employers so that they could assist with the recruitment, placement and retention in jobs of persons with disabilities and maintain rosters of jobready persons with disabilities for referral to potential employers;

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e. Adopt policies and practices related to job-readiness training and/or skills redevelopment or retraining for adults with disabilities who lack employment experience or whose skills are obsolete or who can no longer return to their former jobs owing to their disability.

E. Access to built environments and public transport

Actions required

20. Governments should:

Take appropriate measures to enforce accessibility standards effectively and to promote accessibility in both existing and newly built environments and public transport;

Promote the concept of universal design among public and private entities, with a view to benefiting persons with different disabilities;

Ensure, in collaboration with other stakeholders, that all services which are open to or provided for the public take into account all aspects of accessibility for persons with disabilities;

Encourage and promote the research into and the development of good quality mobility aids and devices at affordable prices in order to enable access by persons with disabilities to built environments, public transport, information and communications, and other services;

Take appropriate measures to promote accessible tourism.

F. Access to information and communications, including information, communications and assistive technologies

Actions required

21. Governments should:

Actively promote accessibility in respect of information and communications, including information and communication technology, for persons with disabilities in order to ensure the full enjoyment of their rights and, in so doing, comply with the Tunis Commitment and the Tunis Agenda of the World Summit on the Information Society;

Promote the production and dissemination of public information in accessible languages and the modes and means of communication, including plain language, via accessible technologies;

Take appropriate measures to recognize and promote the use of sign languages, Braille, augmentative and alternative means of communication and all other accessible means, modes and formats of communication chosen by persons with disabilities in facilities and services open or made available to the public, and in all other forms of official interaction;

Take appropriate measures, in collaboration with the private sector, to promote the availability of various forms of live assistance and intermediaries, including guides, readers and

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professional sign-language interpreters, to facilitate the accessibility of persons with disabilities to built environments, services of a public nature, including banking and postal services and those which are provided electronically;

(e) Promote, together with other stakeholders, research and development, as well as the procurement of information and assistive technologies that abide by universal design concepts and internationally recognized accessibility standards;

(f) Take appropriate measures to support, in collaboration with national organizations of the deaf, the development of sign language and the training of sign language interpreters, and recognize the use of sign language in educational, employment-related and legal processes.

G. Poverty alleviation through capacity-building, social security and sustainable livelihood programmes

Actions required

22. Governments should:

Mainstream disability perspectives in national development frameworks, such as poverty reduction strategy papers;

Review existing social security policies and practices and modify them, as necessary, to promote personal mobility, health, rehabilitation and rehabilitation services, education and an adequate standard of living and social protection for persons with disabilities. Where they do not exist, policies aimed at providing basic services should be developed and implemented. The provision of basic assistive devices that meet the needs of persons with disabilities as well as any personal assistance needed should be promoted.

IV. KEY STRATEGIES

23. The Biwako Millennium Framework for Action has 10 strategies categorized under the following 4 areas of “strategies to achieve the targets of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action:

National plan of action (five years) on disability;

Promotion of a rights-based approach to disability issues;

Disability statistics/common definition of disabilities for planning;

Strengthened community-based approaches to the prevention of causes of disability, rehabilitation and empowerment of persons with disabilities.

24. The following strategies build on and expand the strategies set out in the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action. They reflect the lessons learned from the efforts already undertaken to implement the Framework, and the need to address new issues and concerns which have emerged since

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the adoption of the Framework. Accordingly, the four strategic areas in the Framework were reexamined and restructured as follows:

Reinforce a rights-based approach to disability issues;

Promote an enabling environment and strengthen effective mechanisms for policy formulation and implementation;

Improve the availability and quality of data and other information on disabilities for policy formulation and implementation;

Promote disability-inclusive development;

Strengthen comprehensive community-based approaches to disability issues for the prevention of the causes of disability and for the rehabilitation and empowerment of persons with disabilities.

25. The restructured strategic area, “reinforce a rights-based approach to disability issues”, expands on the existing strategy: “promotion of a rights-based approach to disability issues,” in the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action, taking into consideration the greater importance of the rights-based approach embodied in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Another restructured strategic area, “promote an enabling environment and strengthen effective mechanisms for policy formulation and implementation”, was added because it is necessary to reemphasize the institutional and other factors that would enable undertaking what is promoted in both the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action and Biwako Plus Five. The existing strategy in the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action, “national plan of action (five years) on disability”, was integrated into this revised strategy. The restructured strategic area, “improve the availability and the quality of data and other information on disabilities for the purposes of policy formulation and implementation”, expands on the existing strategy: “disability statistics/common definition of disabilities for planning” in the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action, taking into account the need to intensify efforts to obtain and utilize effective data and information on disabilities. The restructured strategic area, “promote disability-inclusive development”, was added because the mainstreaming of disability perspectives into development assistance activities has been increasingly deemed effective in attaining the goals of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action. The restructured strategic area, “strengthen comprehensive community-based approaches to (a) prevent the causes of disability, (b) the rehabilitation and (c) the empowerment of persons with disabilities”, expands an existing strategy: “strengthened communitybased approaches to the prevention of causes of disability, rehabilitation and empowerment of persons with disabilities”, which reflects the evolving concept of community-based rehabilitation. Furthermore, although the target dates for strategies 1, 8 and 9 in the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action were set before 2007, Governments and other stakeholders that have not achieved the targets will need to continue their efforts to achieve them as soon as possible. Strategies 6 and 7 of the Framework, which

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have been nullified with the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, were reformulated as strategies 4 and 5 in the present document.

A. Reinforcing a rights-based approach to disability issues

Strategy 1

26. Governments take note of a newly emerging trend in understanding disability as an evolving concept and are encouraged to recognize disability as a result of the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. Governments are encouraged to incorporate this understanding of disability into their existing and new policies. Particular attention should be paid to the removal of any barriers that prevent persons with disabilities from fully participating in society and exercising their rights.

Strategy 2

27. Governments should consider steps to amend or repeal any laws that are not consistent with the international instruments on human rights and disability to which they are parties, and to adopt laws that would promote the rights of persons with disabilities.

Strategy 3

28. Governments are encouraged to take appropriate measures, including development and implementation of antidiscrimination legislation, to effectively promote and protect the rights of persons with disabilities.

Strategy 4

29. Governments are encouraged to consider the establishment of an effective, independent, advisory and representative mechanism, or the designation of an existing mechanism, to assist in monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the legal, administrative and institutional systems aimed at promoting and protecting the rights of persons with disabilities.

Strategy 5

30. Governments are encouraged to consider signing and ratifying or acceding to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Optional Protocol to the Convention as a matter of priority, and to promote and protect the right of persons with disabilities so that they may enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Strategy 6

31. Governments, in collaboration with all stakeholders, should take positive measures in facilitating the provision of reasonable accommodation to equalize the opportunities that exist for persons with disabilities in all areas of life. Reasonable accommodation refers to necessary and

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appropriate modifications and adjustments that do not impose a disproportionate or undue burden, where needed in a particular case, in order to ensure that persons with disabilities can enjoy or exercise, on an equal basis with others, all human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Strategy 7

32. Governments should promote access to justice for persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others.

B. Promoting an enabling environment and strengthening effective mechanisms for policy formulation and implementation

Strategy 8

33. Governments at all levels are encouraged to develop or update an action plan on disability with time-bound targets and to allocate sufficient resources for the implementation of the plan and the monitoring of implementation. Where appropriate, lessons learned from the previous action plan should be taken into account.

Strategy 9

34. Governments should, if they have not already done so, establish or designate an institutional mechanism to coordinate and monitor policies and programmes concerning disability; this should ensure both the effective and regular participation of representatives of all ministries and the participation of persons with disabilities. Local government should be an integral part of this mechanism.

Strategy 10

35. Governments should, within the limits of their economic capacity and level of development, adequately and on a sustainable basis finance the implementation of relevant policies and programmes, data collection and capacity-building for government officials, experts and persons with disabilities as well as the operation of a mechanism for coordinating disability-related matters.

Strategy 11

36. All stakeholders should raise awareness of the rights-based approach and disability-inclusive development through effective networking and collaboration with the media, research institutions, legal professionals, donor and development agencies and the private sector.

Strategy 12

37. Governments, together with other stakeholders, should ensure that the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action and the present document are disseminated in an appropriate manner.

Strategy 14

39. Governments are encouraged to develop policies or laws to mandate the collection of data on disabilities, as well as the allocation of the requisite resources. Such policies and laws should, among other things, respect the privacy of persons with disabilities.

Strategy 15

40. As far as possible, data should be classified by the socio-economic status of persons with disabilities, including the type of impairment, sex, age, education, employment and income.

Strategy 16

41. Governments should build national capacity so that data on disability can be regularly collected through population censuses and surveys and disseminated.

Strategy 17

42. Governments are encouraged to develop innovative methods of data collection in order to capture the needs of persons with disabilities, in particular those who are illiterate or who live in remote areas.

Strategy 18

43. Governments are encouraged to undertake regular assessments of the impact of policies and programmes which are intended to improve the situation of persons with disabilities and to ensure that they fully enjoy their human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Strategy 19

44. Governments, in cooperation with ESCAP, should, as appropriate, take measures to ascertain the concerns of disabled persons and to develop future action plans through questionnaires and surveys, depending on the availability of resources.

Strategy 20

45. ESCAP, other United Nations organizations, agencies and intergovernmental organizations, should, upon request, assist Governments in setting statistical standards and in formulating policy regarding persons with disabilities.

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D. Promoting disability-inclusive development

Strategy 21

46. Governments at all levels, in collaboration with United Nations development organizations and agencies, international, regional and national development organizations, the private sector and other civil society organizations, should mainstream disability perspectives in the development and implementation of all social and economic development plans, in particular those related to the Millennium Development Goals. The development of disability indicators for the Millennium Development Goals should be considered.

Strategy 22

47. International, regional and national development organizations and agencies, including United Nations development organizations and agencies, are encouraged to mainstream disability perspectives into the development and the implementation of their general policies and programmes. Economic and technical cooperation should also be an integral part of this endeavour.

Strategy 23

48. Disability-inclusive disaster management should be promoted. Disability perspectives should be duly included in the implementation of policies and initiatives in this area, including the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015, an international framework for promoting the commitment of Governments to disaster management. Universal design concepts should be integrated into infrastructure development in disaster-preparedness and post-disaster reconstruction activities.

E. Strengthening comprehensive community-based approaches to disability issues for the prevention of the causes of disability and for the rehabilitation and empowerment of persons with disabilities

Strategy 24

49. Governments, in collaboration with United Nations development organizations and agencies, international, regional and national development organizations and agencies, the private sector and other civil society organizations, are encouraged to apply comprehensive community-based rehabilitation (CBR) measures, taking into account the recommendations contained in the ILO/UNESCO/WHO joint position paper referred to in paragraph 4 above.

Strategy 25

50. Governments are encouraged to take appropriate and effective measures to reduce the preventable causes of disabilities, such as traffic accidents and diseases.

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V. ENHANCING COOPERATION AND SUPPORT IN PURSUANCE OF THE BIWAKO MILLENNIUM FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION

51. The Biwako Millennium Framework for Action has seven strategies categorized under three areas of “cooperation and support in pursuance of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action”, namely “subregional cooperation and collaboration”, “regional collaboration” and “interregional collaboration”. The following are additional strategies to reinforce the implementation of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action targets.

Strategy 26

52. Together with such partners as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Labour Organization, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the United Nations Children’s Fund, the World Health Organization and relevant funds, agencies and other entities within the United Nations system, ESCAP should enhance interagency coordination to implement the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action and Biwako Plus Five effectively.

Strategy 27

53. Governments and international organizations are encouraged to enhance subregional cooperation and collaboration through their involvement in subregional governmental organizations and through regional programmes and projects, such as the United Nations Special Programme for the Economies of Central Asia. Collaboration with regional and subregional disability-related organizations, projects and activities, such as the Asia-Pacific Development Centre on Disability, the Asia and Pacific Disability Forum and the Pacific Islands Forum, should be encouraged.

Strategy 28

54. In support of the effective implementation of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action and Biwako Plus Five, ESCAP is encouraged to develop knowledge networks and disseminate and exchange information throughout the region concerning good practices in cooperation with stakeholders, including civil society organizations and the private sector, and in partnership with international and regional forums, such as the Asia-Pacific Development Centre on Disability, the Pacific Islands Forum and the Asia and Pacific Disability Forum.

VI. ENHANCING EFFECTIVE MONITORING AND REVIEW

55. A review of the implementation of the Biwako Millennium Framework for Action and Biwako Plus Five should be conducted at the end of the Decade, in 2012, at the regional, subregional and national levels. . . . . .